Science Rhymes (and resonates)

So, on April 29th this is happening:

My colleague Gerardo Adesso, who leads the Quantum Correlations group here at Nottingham — who have a very clever logo indeed, it must be said — is a man of many talents and has been writing poems and limericks to accompany each Physical Review Letter he publishes. He’s decided to extend that poetry challenge to other scientists via the Science Rhymes event described in the tweet above.

Gerardo was kind enough to relax the rules ever so slightly for yours truly — I was given special dispensation to write a song rather than a poem for “Science Rhymes”. I’ve been banging the drum for the importance of bridging the STEM-arts & humanities gap at every available opportunity so leapt at the chance when Gerardo asked if I could contribute. The song I’ve written, (un)certain, is embedded below (via SoundCloud), followed by the lyrics. The theme is resonance, which is at the core of the dynamic force microscopy technique we use in our research (as described in this video; at about the 3:04 minute mark into (un)certain, I’ve sampled the sound of the force microscope signal.) There’s also a heavy dose of quantum mechanical allusion mixed (none so subtly) into the lyric — we work with single atoms and molecules (and, indeed, single chemical bonds) so are very definitely in the quantum regime.

“Resonance” is, of course, used in a much wider sense than just its technical physics (and engineering) context: “in tune with…“, “on the same wavelength…“, “in harmony…” all describe how we connect — how we resonate — on a very human level. (un)certain is about the certainty of that type of resonance. Think of it as a quantum love song…

 

(un)certain

a time and a place

in our reciprocal space

closer than close

yes, we resonate…

entangled webs we weave

our universe is calling

a matter of phase or faith?

 

…and as the waves come crashing down

we collapse into this state

uncertainty fades

we’ve finally found our way

 

worlds apart

and we lucked out

 

for Lori

15 minutes of…

Quite why it’s taken me so long to discover this Tim Minchin gem, I don’t know. It was released back in January. Aeons ago. But it’s not just Minchin’s signature clever lyrics — case in point,

Pick up your pitchfork and your torch. We’ll go hunt the monster down. But keep an eye out for uneven ground.  We’ll turn on you if you stumble.

— his quirky vocals, and his wonderful “earworm” melodies that have had me playing “15 Minutes” on an infinite loop. It’s also about the closest to new Jellyfish music we’re ever going to get ever since that transcendent band went to the great gig in the sky. (Well, OK, let’s not be over-dramatic. They just split up; the band members are still with us. It still felt like a bereavement to me, however, because “Belly Button” and “Spilt Milk” have been constant companions.)

And on a similar theme to that of “15 Minutes”, there’s also this criminally over-looked recent classic by Shattered Skies…

“To be seen, to be scene, to be seen…”

Photonic Rock

This is an invited post by Johnny Russell, who contacted me some time ago about an intriguing “photonic” guitar he’s been developing, as demonstrated in the video below. (Subscribe to Johnny’s channel if you want to find out more.) I’m always intrigued by new approaches to music technology so I’ve been keeping an eye on what Johnny’s been doing.

Over to you, Johnny…


Just imagine you had a choice, between hail or snow; for one hour everyday for the rest of your life, regardless of the actual climate, it would hail or it would snow. Which would you choose? Easy decision, right?

Hail is interesting, exciting and even scary when it does come, but snow… snow is beautiful and magical, each snowflake a unique and fragile mathematical pattern that suggests some deeper and profound meaning of the universe in which we exist.

But actually I’m going to talk about music, so why the snow or hail metaphor?

Well it seems in the last ten or so years popular music has become exactly the choice we wouldn’t make – constant hail, every single day. You see, just as water can take on the spatial structure of hail and snow, sound can take on the temporal structure of electronic dance music or Beethoven’s 5th Symphony. Just as the spatial structures of hail and snow have different formation processes, so too does the temporal structure of music, but with music the distinction is quite easily defined: was the temporal structure generated by a computer or created by a human.

And what is one thing missing from computer generated music? Groove.

Music is fundamentally one of the most important aspects of culture. And from the bird’s song to the very heartbeats that give our bodies their constant rhythm, all of it follows mathematical patterns that give rise to groove. These fractal patterns are called long-range correlations, the mathematical name that describes the respective spatial and temporal structures of both snowflakes and groove music.​ These groovy patterns have existed all throughout the history of evolution, as they are an intrinsic part of the universe in which we live. But, for the first time in human history, as the music industry aims for “perfection” and producers have taken the role of musicians, these patterns have largely been removed. The vast majority of music on the radio mathematically contains little groove, resulting in melodies that don’t remain with us as there is little human fluctuation, no groove that we can inherently and fundamentally relate to; hail.

A big part of this trend is that with music tech, there remains one last problem; the guitar, the number one rock star instrument cannot be made to produce MIDI in real time to create these fractal patterns. This problem has been around for decades, but for each attempted solution, something has to be sacrificed from a true guitar style to achieve this. The problem here is simply because string dynamics are complicated, there are many frequencies bouncing around at any instant. To know the frequencies you then have a problem which is analogous to the quantum mechanical Heisenberg uncertainty principle: the more accurately you know position, the less accurately you know momentum.

With string dynamics the trade-off is that to know the fundamental frequency node of the note on the vibrating string, you need time; the more time you have, the more precisely the frequency can be calculated. This is done by a mathematical process called a Fourier Transform. This is what current systems work with, which means that the MIDI note can’t be calculated and played without some latency. The other approach is to redesign the guitar completely, but these systems lose the subtlety and speed of the string dynamics themselves. The one consistent thing across all these systems is that they are completely electronic.

The Russell Photonic Guitar is the first REAL guitar to produce chords, note slides, hammer-ons and pull-offs with MIDI sound in line with the natural or electric sound coming out of the guitar, simultaneously, in the moment. Finally, a next generation instrument that can sync with the flow of human emotion. With this, not only will electronic and rock music have a new tool in which to explore the vast MIDI landscape, but also classical music will have piano that can also do all the unique guitar string tricks, and here also new musical landscapes will be opened up for musicians to explore, and everyone to enjoy.​

Lastly, and possibly most importantly; contrary to music dividing people due to the attachment of egos or identity to so many separate splintered genres, music still has an overwhelming power to bring different people together. It all has to do with groove. A remarkable scientific discovery on the power of groove is outlined in this paper, in which the authors studied beat fluctuations between two musicians, and, to quote, “…the next beat played by an individual is dependent on the entire history (up to several minutes) of their partner’s interbeat intervals.” Which means that two people can be locked into the same groovy fractal pattern.

Why is that so significant? Well, do you know how if you look at the stars, due to the finite speed of light, you are looking into the past? The same thing happens on a much smaller scale if you are interacting with a fellow human being; you’re interacting with a moment that has already gone. We are all islands of isolation separated by the finite speed of light, the speed of causality. So how can we bridge our islands of isolation? If we essentially all get on the same groove (sometimes referred to colloquially as a “groove train”) by way of fractal patterns, we are temporally locked, and isn’t that truly experiencing the same moment together? If that is the case, then that is truly Zen.

This is the power of groove, and why the Russell Photonic Guitar will be so significant for all of music.

 

Maths In Action

Just back from London where I had a fun — and ever-so-slightly daunting — time talking about the beauty of maths in music and physics for an audience of 700 GCSE students at the “Maths In Action” conference. The venue was stunning…

IMG_6554.JPG

Just about visible at the front of the cavernous auditorium is the speaker before me, Hugh Hunt (Engineering, Cambridge), doing a remarkable job of entertaining and engaging the audience with his demonstration-packed talk on angular momentum, gyroscopic precession, and all things spin-y. Hugh’s talk was an impossible act to follow — he set the bar exceptionally high indeed. I did my usual spin on the quantum-metal interface but tilted it towards a discussion of the role of mathematics in physics. (I had to come clean right at the start and confess to the students that I am most definitely not a mathematician.)

The students were great throughout — they certainly were not shy to shout out answers to the questions I asked (and to sing musical notes back to me, occasionally even in tune). An extra big thank you to Korbyn — and my sincere apologies if I’ve got the spelling wrong — for coming up on stage to play the opening riff to Black Sabbath and help me introduce the concept of the diabolical flattened fifth.

And, of course, I have to say a huge thank you to David Matthews, coordinator of the event (and Maths Programme Manager for The Training Partnership, who run a very broad series of GCSE events of this type)  for both the invitation to speak and for such an impressively organised day. As someone who too often struggles to manage just two teenagers*, attempting to coordinate 700 would bring me out in a cold sweat…

* I’m joking, Niamh and Saoirse. You’re great.

“Science on Saturday” Goes to 11

This weekend I had the honour and privilege of being the first speaker for the 2019 Ronald E Hatcher Science on Saturday series of lectures held at, and organised by, Princeton’s PPL (Plasma Physics Laboratory).  I’ll let PPPL themselves explain what Science On Saturday is all about:

Science on Saturday is a series of lectures given by scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in cutting-edge research. Held on Saturday mornings throughout winter, the lectures are geared toward high school students. The program draws more than 300 students, teachers, parents, and community members. Topics are selected from a variety of disciplines.

Named after the late Ronald E Hatcher, who ran and hosted the series for many years, Science on Saturday is a fun way to bring physics (and other lesser sciences) to the general public(s) and other scientists alike. I was bowled over by the enthusiasm and engagement of the audience, who braved a bracing Saturday morning to hear about the connections between Sabbath, Stryper, and Schrödinger.  (The free bagels and coffee before the talk were, I’m sure, not entirely incidental in attracting the audience. I certainly can vouch for the quality of the pre-lecture consumables.) The Q&A session at the end ran for over an hour, with many insightful questions from the audience, whose age range seemed to span ~ 9 to 90 years young!

A number of those who were in the audience e-mailed me after the talk to ask for a copy of the slides. I’ve uploaded them to SlideShare (sans videos, regrettably) to make them publicly available here:

 

Andrew Zwicker has been the energetic and entertaining host for Science on Saturday for, if I recall correctly, more years than he cares to remember. In parallel with his career in physics, Andrew has successfully forayed into politics, as outlined at his Wikipedia page. Before the lecture he told me about an exciting scheme to encourage more early career researchers into politics. I thoroughly understand the reticence of many scientists to get involved with the political sphere — my involvement with the Royal Society MP-Scientist pairing scheme a number of years ago was an eye-opener in terms of the mismatch that can exist between political and scientific mindsets — but we need to bite the bullet and dive in*, especially in an era when hard scientific evidence is so readily dismissed as “fake news”. (Apologies. Make that “FAKE NEWS” and add any number of exclamation marks to taste.)

On the day of my Science on Saturday lecture, a white supremacist march had been mooted to be held in Princeton (not the most likely of venues, it fortunately has to be said, for that type of hatemongering.) In the end, the basement dwellers never turned up — they claimed that it was a hoax. But the counter-protesters attended in their heart-warming hundreds…

I’d like to offer a very big thank you both to Andrew for the invitation to speak at “Science on Saturday” and to DeeDee Ortiz, the Program Manager for Science Education at PPPL, for organising the visit. A similarly massive thank you to Lori for all of her help and organisation, including providing the key musical “props” used during the lecture.


*Excuse the mixed metaphor. I love mixed metaphors. This, taken from Leon Lederman’s “The God Particle” as an example of writing by one of his PhD students, is my very favourite: “This field of physics is so virginal that no human eyeball has ever set foot in it.” (That quote tickles me so much that I use it as part of the introduction to the final year Politics, Perception, and Philosophy of Physics  module here at Nottingham.)

Rhapsody in Q

While digging through my e-mail archive to find a completely unrelated e-mail from years ago, I unearthed the following wonderful parody progress report (for the month of January 2012) from Julian Stirling, a PhD student researcher in the Nottingham Nanoscience Group at the time.  I just couldn’t leave it languishing in the archive so have released it into the wild here. Julian’s PhD project was focussed on various aspects of the qPlus variant of atomic force microscopy (described by its originator Franz Giessibl in the video below).

At the time of writing his Jan 2012 monthly report, Julian had been working on an analysis of the tip geometry in qPlus AFM which was later published in the Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology.

Over to you, Julian…


Is this a real force?
Is this just fantasy?
I am not sure if they
Line up with reality

Open a book,
Look up at the maths and see…

It’s not a good guess, look at condition three.
Tips are, rather big, rather long
Rather like, other prong,
Any way the tip moves, all this matters to me.

To me…

Da-dah!
I just solved the math,
Put a pen against board,
left no solution unexplored

Da-dah… This has just begun,
Because now I got to work out what it means

Da-dah woo-hooo,
Didn’t mean to stop and cheer
If I’m right there is work to do tomorrow
Carry on, carry on as if nothing’s really finished

Look now, simulation’s done:
Sends vibrations down the tine
Oscillating all the time
Hey look, ev’rybody, the way it moves,
Gotta see the graph and try to face the truth

Da-dah woo-hooo,
I don’t want to stop,
I sometimes wish I’d never solved this at all

I see a little simulation of a tine,
Look at that! Look at that! Do you see the lateral motion?!
Eigenmodes and vectors, simulate detectors! Gee!
Galileo, Galileo
Galileo, Galileo
Galileo, Figaro – magnifico

Its just a theory, no one believes me
Its just a theory, why should we believe thee?
Just take a look at a this spectroscopy!
In it comes, out it goes, will you watch it go?
Bismilah! No, we will not watch it go
(Watch it go!) Bismilah! We will not watch it go
(Watch it go!) Bismilah! We will not watch it go
(Watch it go) Will not watch it go
(Watch it go)(Never) Never watch it go
(Watch it go) Never watch it go (Watch it go) Ah
No, no, no, no, no, no, no
Oh mama mia, mama mia, mama mia, watch it go,
Beelzebub had a simulation put aside for me
For meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee!

So you think you can model me and predict how I scan?!?!
So you think you can simulate all that I am?!?!
Oh, Euler- can’t do this to me Euler,
Just gotta derive, just got to derive it in full

All this really matters, Anyone can see,
All this really matters,
All this really matters to me…

Any way the tip moves…